As migrant spouses’ education increases from high school to some college or above, the increase in their likelihood of hukou locality intermarriage is similar between Shanghai and Shenzhen. When migrant spouses’ education changes from high school to some college or above, their odds of hukou locality intermarriage increase by 159% and 110% in Shanghai and Shenzhen, respectively, and the difference between Shanghai and Shenzhen is not statistically significant (Shanghai: ? = 0.95, exp(?) = 2.59,p < 0.001;> 0.05). In contrast, as migrant spouses’ education changes from less than high school to high school, their odds of intermarriage increase significantly in Shenzhen (? = 0.02 + 1.81 = 1.83,p < 0.001)> 0.05), and the difference is highly significant (dif.: ? = 1.81,p < 0.001).
That it dating is very strong during the Shenzhen
Complete, in addition to supportive proof good dyadic replace, particularly in Shenzhen, we together with select supporting facts for sector replace, since migrants are more likely to marry an area companion (i.e., to make hukou intermarriage) as his or her studies develops. The results suggest a top probability of hukou locality-training change to own non-college-knowledgeable migrants in the Shenzhen than in Shanghai, but the same probability of hukou locality-training replace on these a few metropolitan areas to have university-knowledgeable migrants, and that aids Hypothesis step three the all the way down probability of hukou locality-studies replace in the Shanghai, compared to the Shenzhen, retains to own low-college-educated migrants however having school-knowledgeable migrants.
Considering Design 5 off Dining table 2 and Contour 2 , regional spouses’ knowledge isn’t of the the diary-probability of hukou locality intermarriage, which relationships doesn’t disagree between them towns and cities
Up to now, i’ve thought merely intermarriage ranging from residents and you will migrants, instead pinpointing between a couple of hukou designs. Within test, natives is actually mainly metropolitan hukou people whereas migrants generally keep rural hukou in both locations. Especially, into the Shanghai, regarding 85% from locals however, no more than 20% out-of migrants possess urban hukou. Inside the Shenzhen, the natives hold urban hukou, however, just about 35% of migrants try urban hukou people. The fresh new logical difference out of hukou variety of anywhere between locals and migrants indicates a likelihood of hukou sort of change contained in this inter-hukou-area ine if or not hukou type of influences our performance.
Basic, we take a look at the brand new shipments out of hukou types of among intermarriages out-of hukou area. Given that found for the Profile A1, over half this new partners in which a couple of spouses differ in hukou area function homogamy in terms of hukou variety of. This might be in line with prior conclusions that most Chinese e hukou sort of (Li & Lu, 2008; Wang & He, 2014). A beneficial gender asymmetric trend regarding hukou interong couples involving a good migrant partner and you can a neighbor hood partner, merely 11% is actually outlying-husband-urban-partner couples while 86% was metropolitan-husband-urban-spouse people. However, among people where in actuality the husband are a good Shanghai regional citizen and the partner is a good migrant, 45% is urban-husband-rural-wife couples. In other words, whenever feminine with Shanghai hukou wed migrants, they tend so you’re able to marry metropolitan migrants, whereas guys which have Shanghai hukou exactly who wed migrant women usually get married outlying migrants. For the Shenzhen, this gender pattern are reduced obvious: 26% regarding migrant-husband-local-wife partners has actually a metropolitan spouse and you may a rural husband, while several% out-of local-husband-migrant-spouse lovers cover a metropolitan spouse and you may a rural wife. Such results recommend that for the Shanghai relationships field, one another hukou area and you can hukou types of construction intermarriage patterns nuoret sinkkunaiset alueellani, however in Shenzhen hukou method of seems less essential. They then helps our very own findings on the hukou burden are more powerful inside the Shanghai than in Shenzhen.
Second, we did a sensitivity analysis by excluding couples in which two spouses differ in both hukou locality and hukou type. In this way, intermarriages that cross hukou locality do not include any couples that might also engage in status exchange in terms of hukou type. The results (available upon request) are substantively the same. Hukou locality homogamy remains more pronounced in Shanghai than in Shenzhen (? Shenzhen*hukou homogamy =?0.42, p < 0.001).>shenzhen*(migrants: high school vs. less than high school) 1.11, p < 0.1).>